Mini-Moog, a small affordable integrated synthesizer, makes analog synthesis easily available and affordable, along with newcomers ARP and Oberheim. Charles Dodge composes Speech Songs (1972) based on early Bell Labs speech synthesis research. Jon Appleton (with Jones and Alonso) invents the Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer, later to become the New England Digital Corp.'s Synclavier (1st version pictured left), making real-time digital synthesis a reality (you play a key, you hear a note). The Synclavier would go on to be not only a real-time performance keyboard, but also a major studio hard disc recording platform for those that could afford the pricey setup. The Fairlight CMI (Computer Music Instrument) was a cheaper real-time digital synthesizer and sampler with a digital sequencer and was released in 1979.
Princeton opens a computer music lab (primarily to convert digital tape to analog) in 1970 with Godfrey Winham and Kenneth Stieglitz so composers would not have to drive their digital tapes up to Bell Labs in MUrray Hill, NJ to be converted. It would eventually be renamed the Godfrey Winham Lab after Winham's early death. In 1975, with Chowning's guidance, Stanford opens the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics or CCRMA. Many luminaries in the field would come to work there, including Max Mathews, Chris Chafe, Ge Wang, Julius O. Smith and John Pierce.
In 1973, Barry Vercoe, who found the MIT Experimental Music Studio (yet another EMS) two years earlier, writes Music 11, a next-generation music synthesis program, named in part for the PDP-11 minicomputer it was designed for. Music 11 was notable for providing separate sampling rates for audio signals and control signals (which did not require as much resoluation as audio, and hence made the process more efficient), a distinction maintained in almost all subsequent digital music applications (for example, in current-day MAX, objects with tildes(~) are computed at audio rate, those without are computed at a lower control rate).
IRCAM, the Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (Paris) becomes a major center for computer music research and realization and develops 4X computer system, featuring then revolutionary real-time digital signal processing. With Pierre Boulez as director, and Berio named as artistic director, many notables in the field researched and worked there, including John Chowning, Stanley Haynes, Miller Puckette, Jean-Claude Risset, Tristan Murail, Jonathan Harvey and many more. Murial, a leading proponent of the spectralist approach to composition writes Désintégrations for large ensemble and electronic playback in 1982 based on spectral modeling of real instruments. Murail, who taught composition at IRCAM for seven years before moving to Columbia University, follows that a decade later with his second IRCAM commission, resulting in L'Esprit des dunes, another work for ensemble and electronics, but this time, with the electronics coordinating with the ensemble via an interactive MAX patch controlled by a keyboard.
In 1976, Iannis Xenakis established the Centre d'Etudes de Mathématique et Automatique Musicales or CEMAMu . It is perhaps best known for the development of the UPIC (Unité Polyagogique Informatique CEMAMu) composition system which takes realtime input from a graphics tablet to control digital musical parameters. UPIC was used by Xenakis to produce Mycènes Alpha in 1978 and several other works. Xenakis established a mirror facility at Indiana University, the Center for Mathematical and Automated Music (CMAM), now CECM, from 1966-1972 after which he left IU.
In 1977, MIT Press begins publishing the Computer Music Journal, complete with sound discs to accompany the peer-reviewed articles on the latest research and creative activity in the field.
Paul Lanky, of Princeton University, composes Six Fantasies on a Poem by Thomas Campion in 1978-9 using an IBM 360 mainframe computer and a math process he applied to music cross-synthesis called Linear Predictive Coding or LPC. For the work, he takes the spoken voice of his spouse and transforms the aspects of speech into harmonized textures based on the contours, vowels, articulations, etc. of the text. Lansky went on to write several digital signal processing software packages including Cmix, MIX and RT, which are carried on today in the open-source RTcmix software package developed in the mid-1990's by Brad Garton, David Topper and subsequently several others such as CECM director John Gibson and former CECM student, Doug Scott.
Also in 1979, the International Computer Music Association (ICMA) is founded and is still one of the primary worldwide organizations for the field, holding annual conferences called International Computer Music Conference(s) or ICMC.